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Bob Fusillo
November 16th 04, 02:55 PM
From the NY Times:
http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/16/health/nutrition/16sore.html?oref=login

Geezer From The Freezer
November 16th 04, 03:13 PM
Bob Fusillo wrote:
>
> From the NY Times:
> http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/16/health/nutrition/16sore.html?oref=login

can you cut and paste as you have to be a member to read that!

willjun
November 16th 04, 04:11 PM
Bob Fusillo wrote:

From the NY Times:
http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/16/health/nutrition/16sore.html?oref=login

can you cut and paste as you have to be a member to read that!

Work Out Now, Ache Later: How Your Muscles Pay You Back
By VICKY LOWRY

Published: November 16, 2004

Active people know the feeling all too well: a stiff and achy sensation in the muscles that sneaks up on the body 24 hours or more after, say, a hard run, a challenging weight lifting session or the first day back on the ski slopes.

Sports scientists call it delayed onset of muscle soreness. Athletes call it a nuisance because even simple movements like walking down stairs can be an ordeal. If the soreness is severe enough, it can hamper the next workout or even ruin a ski vacation.

Because of the delay, some people may not even realize that the aches and pains were caused by an activity - gardening, for example, or hammering nails - engaged in days before.

"I've had patients call me up who think they have a virus," said Dr. Gary Wadler, a professor at the New York University School of Medicine and a specialist in sports medicine.

The culprit for delayed muscle soreness is not, as some people used to think, the buildup of lactic acid, a byproduct of exercise that dissipates from the muscle tissues within an hour. That kind of soreness is considered acute. As soon as someone stops exercising, or shortly afterward, the burn goes away.

"It's not the key bad guy," said Dr. Michael Saunders, director of the Human Performance Laboratory at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Va.

No one knows for sure exactly what does cause muscle soreness. But many scientists now think that the delayed pain is caused by microscopic tears in the muscles when a certain exercise or activity is new or novel. These tiny tears eventually produce inflammation, and corresponding pain, 24 to 36 hours later.

"White blood cells start to repair the damaged muscle after about 12 to 24 hours and they release a number of chemicals which are likely to be involved in the generation of local muscle pain," said Dr. Mark Tarnopolsky, a specialist in neuromuscular disorders at the McMaster University Medical Center in Hamilton, Ontario. "You see damage at the microscopic level immediately after exercise, yet the soreness is usually delayed for about 24 hours and peaks at 48 hours."

The good news is that as these little tears repair themselves, they prepare the muscles to handle the same type of exercise better the next time.

"The muscle gets more resilient, meaning the next time you do that same exercise you won't get damaged as much," said Dr. Priscilla Clarkson, a professor of exercise science at the University of Massachusetts and a leading researcher on muscle soreness. "That doesn't mean you are stronger, or mean you can lift more weight. It just means your muscle fibers are likely stronger so they won't tear as easily. Over time they'll build up and become a stronger fiber to lift more weight."

Performing certain exercises can almost guarantee delayed soreness: running, hiking or skiing downhill, for example, and lowering weights - what weight lifters refer to as "negatives." In these downhill or downward motions, called eccentric muscle actions, the muscle fibers have to lengthen and then contract, "like putting on the brakes," Dr. Clarkson explained. "It's that lengthening-contraction that puts the most strain on the fiber and does the most damage."

Of the 600 or so muscles in the human body, about 400 of them are skeletal. The largest of these are the muscles most susceptible to delayed soreness, Dr. Wadler said.

Severe muscle pain that lasts for many days can be a sign of rhabdomyolysis, a disorder that occurs when too much of the muscle protein myoglobin leaks from the muscle cells into the bloodstream, possibly damaging the kidneys.

Dark urine, indicating the presence of myoglobin, can be a symptom of rhabdomyolysis, which in very rare cases can lead to renal failure.

Running marathons and participating in other endurance events can cause rhabdomyolysis, said Dr. William O. Roberts, president of the American College of Sports Medicine. Other risk factors include being unfit or dehydrated and exercising in high temperatures.

"It's one of the reasons why you want to stay well hydrated if you are going to work your muscles hard," Dr. Roberts said. "Drink enough so that you have good urine output to clear these waste products." In most cases, though, delayed muscle soreness is not serious, and the soreness fades after a day or two of rest. Weight lifters typically work out the lower body one day and the upper body the next to give fatigued muscles a chance to recover. And conditioned athletes, like cyclists and runners, often alternate between easy and hard days of exercise. "Stress-adapt, stress-adapt so you can handle more and more exercise," said Dr. Tarnopolsky. "That's what an athlete strives for."

The results for other strategies for avoiding or recovering more quickly from muscle soreness are mixed. Many active people reach for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like Advil or Aleve. While some data suggest that the drugs may work to prevent soreness or alleviate it once it sets in, the degree of reduction in soreness is small, Dr. Clarkson said.

Rarely, doctors prescribe the painkillers known as COX-2 inhibitors for short-term muscle soreness. But the drugs, which include Celebrex and Bextra, are more commonly used to treat arthritis.

And all cox-2 inhibitors are under increased scrutiny, after Vioxx was pulled from the market in September. Merck withdrew it after studies found it increased the risk of heart attacks and stroke.

Stretching does not prevent muscle soreness, researchers have found, and massage does little to improve recovery after eccentric muscle use, according to a study published in September in The American Journal of Sports Medicine. In the study, researchers in Stockholm found that after participants performed leg exercises to exhaustion, massage treatment did not affect the level or duration of pain, loss of strength or muscle function.

Consuming protein, however, may help. In a report published in the July issue of the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, scientists found that trained cyclists who consumed a carbohydrate and protein beverage during and immediately after a ride, were able to ride 29 percent longer during the first ride, and 40 percent longer in a second session than those consuming carbohydrates alone.

"Our findings suggest that the protein-carbohydrate mix enhanced muscle performance and recovery in the later rides," said Dr. Saunders of James Madison, the study's lead author.

But further research is necessary. The results of the study may have been influenced by a higher caloric content in the carbohydrate-protein beverage.

"There is some evidence that consuming protein and carbohydrates in the immediate period after exercise may decrease subsequent muscle damage, but that research is in its infancy," said Dr. Tarnopolsky. "What has been fairly well established is that eating food in the postexercise period is better than starving.

"The take-home message is if you are training in the evening don't go to bed on an empty stomach. And if you work out in the morning, eat breakfast afterward or make darn sure to take a snack to work."

A practical tactic is to try to limit muscle soreness before it takes hold. For that, you need to train the body to get used to downhill or downward motions.

"Gradually run or walk down hills more if you are planning to participate in a downhill event, or take an elevator up to the top of a tall building and walk or run down the stairs," Dr. Roberts recommended.

Hikers should consider using adjustable poles, which distribute some of the stress on the legs, transferring it to the upper body, when descending steep grades. "I put hiking poles into the hands of every one of my clients and tell them that if they don't like them I'll carry them," said Nate Goldberg, who routinely guides hikes up 14,000-foot peaks in the Sawatch Mountains of Colorado as director of the Beaver Creek Hiking Center. "Very rarely do I get a set of poles back."

Seasoned athletes, it turns out, are no more immune to delayed onset of muscle soreness than neophyte exercisers. "If I asked Lance Armstrong to run down 10 flights of stairs, he'd be very sore," Dr. Clarkson said. "It's all about sport specificity."

Lurker
November 16th 04, 06:50 PM
Bully wrote:
> willjun wrote:
> <snip>
> Was there anything new in that?
>
They can't be outdone by the "Olive oil is good for you!" story of a
couple weeks ago can they?

Lurker

Bob Fusillo
November 16th 04, 07:43 PM
November 16, 2004
Work Out Now, Ache Later: How Your Muscles Pay You Back
By VICKY LOWRY

ctive people know the feeling all too well: a stiff and achy sensation in
the muscles that sneaks up on the body 24 hours or more after, say, a hard
run, a challenging weight lifting session or the first day back on the ski
slopes.

Sports scientists call it delayed onset of muscle soreness. Athletes call it
a nuisance because even simple movements like walking down stairs can be an
ordeal. If the soreness is severe enough, it can hamper the next workout or
even ruin a ski vacation.

Because of the delay, some people may not even realize that the aches and
pains were caused by an activity - gardening, for example, or hammering
nails - engaged in days before.

"I've had patients call me up who think they have a virus," said Dr. Gary
Wadler, a professor at the New York University School of Medicine and a
specialist in sports medicine.

The culprit for delayed muscle soreness is not, as some people used to
think, the buildup of lactic acid, a byproduct of exercise that dissipates
from the muscle tissues within an hour. That kind of soreness is considered
acute. As soon as someone stops exercising, or shortly afterward, the burn
goes away.

"It's not the key bad guy," said Dr. Michael Saunders, director of the Human
Performance Laboratory at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Va.

No one knows for sure exactly what does cause muscle soreness. But many
scientists now think that the delayed pain is caused by microscopic tears in
the muscles when a certain exercise or activity is new or novel. These tiny
tears eventually produce inflammation, and corresponding pain, 24 to 36
hours later.

"White blood cells start to repair the damaged muscle after about 12 to 24
hours and they release a number of chemicals which are likely to be involved
in the generation of local muscle pain," said Dr. Mark Tarnopolsky, a
specialist in neuromuscular disorders at the McMaster University Medical
Center in Hamilton, Ontario. "You see damage at the microscopic level
immediately after exercise, yet the soreness is usually delayed for about 24
hours and peaks at 48 hours."

The good news is that as these little tears repair themselves, they prepare
the muscles to handle the same type of exercise better the next time.

"The muscle gets more resilient, meaning the next time you do that same
exercise you won't get damaged as much," said Dr. Priscilla Clarkson, a
professor of exercise science at the University of Massachusetts and a
leading researcher on muscle soreness. "That doesn't mean you are stronger,
or mean you can lift more weight. It just means your muscle fibers are
likely stronger so they won't tear as easily. Over time they'll build up and
become a stronger fiber to lift more weight."

Performing certain exercises can almost guarantee delayed soreness: running,
hiking or skiing downhill, for example, and lowering weights - what weight
lifters refer to as "negatives." In these downhill or downward motions,
called eccentric muscle actions, the muscle fibers have to lengthen and then
contract, "like putting on the brakes," Dr. Clarkson explained. "It's that
lengthening-contraction that puts the most strain on the fiber and does the
most damage."

Of the 600 or so muscles in the human body, about 400 of them are skeletal.
The largest of these are the muscles most susceptible to delayed soreness,
Dr. Wadler said.

Severe muscle pain that lasts for many days can be a sign of rhabdomyolysis,
a disorder that occurs when too much of the muscle protein myoglobin leaks
from the muscle cells into the bloodstream, possibly damaging the kidneys.

Dark urine, indicating the presence of myoglobin, can be a symptom of
rhabdomyolysis, which in very rare cases can lead to renal failure.

Running marathons and participating in other endurance events can cause
rhabdomyolysis, said Dr. William O. Roberts, president of the American
College of Sports Medicine. Other risk factors include being unfit or
dehydrated and exercising in high temperatures.

"It's one of the reasons why you want to stay well hydrated if you are going
to work your muscles hard," Dr. Roberts said. "Drink enough so that you have
good urine output to clear these waste products." In most cases, though,
delayed muscle soreness is not serious, and the soreness fades after a day
or two of rest. Weight lifters typically work out the lower body one day and
the upper body the next to give fatigued muscles a chance to recover. And
conditioned athletes, like cyclists and runners, often alternate between
easy and hard days of exercise. "Stress-adapt, stress-adapt so you can
handle more and more exercise," said Dr. Tarnopolsky. "That's what an
athlete strives for."

The results for other strategies for avoiding or recovering more quickly
from muscle soreness are mixed. Many active people reach for nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs like Advil or Aleve. While some data suggest that
the drugs may work to prevent soreness or alleviate it once it sets in, the
degree of reduction in soreness is small, Dr. Clarkson said.

Rarely, doctors prescribe the painkillers known as COX-2 inhibitors for
short-term muscle soreness. But the drugs, which include Celebrex and
Bextra, are more commonly used to treat arthritis.

And all cox-2 inhibitors are under increased scrutiny, after Vioxx was
pulled from the market in September. Merck withdrew it after studies found
it increased the risk of heart attacks and stroke.

Stretching does not prevent muscle soreness, researchers have found, and
massage does little to improve recovery after eccentric muscle use,
according to a study published in September in The American Journal of
Sports Medicine. In the study, researchers in Stockholm found that after
participants performed leg exercises to exhaustion, massage treatment did
not affect the level or duration of pain, loss of strength or muscle
function.

Consuming protein, however, may help. In a report published in the July
issue of the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, scientists
found that trained cyclists who consumed a carbohydrate and protein beverage
during and immediately after a ride, were able to ride 29 percent longer
during the first ride, and 40 percent longer in a second session than those
consuming carbohydrates alone.

"Our findings suggest that the protein-carbohydrate mix enhanced muscle
performance and recovery in the later rides," said Dr. Saunders of James
Madison, the study's lead author.

But further research is necessary. The results of the study may have been
influenced by a higher caloric content in the carbohydrate-protein beverage.

"There is some evidence that consuming protein and carbohydrates in the
immediate period after exercise may decrease subsequent muscle damage, but
that research is in its infancy," said Dr. Tarnopolsky. "What has been
fairly well established is that eating food in the postexercise period is
better than starving.

"The take-home message is if you are training in the evening don't go to bed
on an empty stomach. And if you work out in the morning, eat breakfast
afterward or make darn sure to take a snack to work."

A practical tactic is to try to limit muscle soreness before it takes hold.
For that, you need to train the body to get used to downhill or downward
motions.

"Gradually run or walk down hills more if you are planning to participate in
a downhill event, or take an elevator up to the top of a tall building and
walk or run down the stairs," Dr. Roberts recommended.

Hikers should consider using adjustable poles, which distribute some of the
stress on the legs, transferring it to the upper body, when descending steep
grades. "I put hiking poles into the hands of every one of my clients and
tell them that if they don't like them I'll carry them," said Nate Goldberg,
who routinely guides hikes up 14,000-foot peaks in the Sawatch Mountains of
Colorado as director of the Beaver Creek Hiking Center. "Very rarely do I
get a set of poles back."

Seasoned athletes, it turns out, are no more immune to delayed onset of
muscle soreness than neophyte exercisers. "If I asked Lance Armstrong to run
down 10 flights of stairs, he'd be very sore," Dr. Clarkson said. "It's all
about sport specificity."



"Geezer From The Freezer" > wrote in message
...
>
>
> Bob Fusillo wrote:
> >
> > From the NY Times:
> >
http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/16/health/nutrition/16sore.html?oref=login
>
> can you cut and paste as you have to be a member to read that!

Glenn
November 17th 04, 07:36 PM
Thanks for the post Bob, I really appreciated.

Good relevant article. Wish there were more posts like this.

bc
November 18th 04, 04:48 PM
willjun > wrote in message >...
> Geezer From The Freezer Wrote:
> > Bob Fusillo wrote:-
> >
> > From the NY Times:
> > http://tinyurl.com/67hhn-
> >
> > can you cut and paste as you have to be a member to read that!
>
> Work Out Now, Ache Later: How Your Muscles Pay You Back
> By VICKY LOWRY

> Because of the delay, some people may not even realize that the aches
> and pains were caused by an activity - gardening, for example, or
> hammering nails - engaged in days before.
>
> "I've had patients call me up who think they have a virus," said Dr.
> Gary Wadler, a professor at the New York University School of Medicine
> and a specialist in sports medicine.

This part cracked me up. I can imagine the scene:
Patient - I'm sore all over doc. I must be sick.
Doc - Hmmm. What have you done recently?
Patient - I moved my body in a strenuous way for the first time in my life.
Doc - Hmmm.

- bc